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User Guide

The full user's guide provides comprehensive information on scale administration, psychometric validity, reliability and factor analysis studies, as well as details on translations. Selected parts of the manual appear below. The full document is provided with the scale after the agreement and project outline forms have been returned.

Mean scores for the CD-RISC scales in different populations are given in tables 1-10.

Table 1a. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 25-Item Scores in General Population Samples

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Comments
Connor et al (2003) 25 458  80.4 (12.8) USA National random digit dial sample
Lamond et al (2008) 25 1,395 75.7 (13.0) USA Community sample over age 60
Sutherland et al (2009) 25 64 82.7 (8.0) USA Women in university community; healthy controls in study of chemical dependency
Kavirajan et al (2011) 25 1,151 76.1 (12.6) USA Postmenopausal women in community
Goins et al (2012) 25   160 83.0 (13.4) USA Federally recognized Native American tribe
Yu et al (2009) 25 560 65. 4 (13.9) China Community sample
Yu et al (2009)   25 326 71.0 (11.3) China Parents (healthy controls in a study of autism)
Peng et al (2012) 25 1,998 61.7 (10.6) China Medical Students
Ha et al (2009) 25 143 66.8 (12.7) Korea Healthy volunteers
Faria et al (2010) 25 421 73.4 (12.0) Portugal Community sample Lisbon  
Solano & Neto (2012) 25 103 75.4 (72.6,78.3, 95% CI) Brazil Family member normative controls of subjects with chronic pain
Ziaian et al (2012) 25 53
35
82
60
69
67
Australia Refugees from Africa, Yugoslavia, Middle East
Ni et al (2015) 25 10,997 60.0 (13.9) China Hong Kong general population
Liu et al (2015) 25 1892
2062
1826
71.5 (12.5)
71.4 (13.4)
73.4 (13.6)
28-32 yrs
48-52
68-72
Austrailan community cohort
Law et al (2014) 25 79 71.3 (10.8) Australia Centenarians


Table 1b. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 10-Item Scores in General Population Samples

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Comments
Davidson (2003) 10 458 32.1 (5.8) USA National random digit dial sample
Campbell-Sills et al (2008) 10 764 31.8 (5.4) USA Community random digit dial sample in Memphis
Goins et al (2012) 10 160 33.5 (6.2) USA Federally recognized Native American tribe
Jeste et al (2013) 10 1,006 30.8(7.0) to 32.1(6.2) range by age group USA Community sample of older people ages 50-99
Faria et al (2011) 10 421 29.3 (5.7) Portugal Community sample Lisbon
Lopes and Martins (2011) 10 463 29.1 (5.5) Brazil Adult sample
Antunez et al (2015)` 10` 1922 29.0 (0.1) Spain Adult sample


Table 1c. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 2-Item Scores in General Population Samples

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Comments
Vaishnavi et al (2008) 2 458 6.91(1.5) USA National random digit dial sample
Lee et al (2008) 2 1961 6.47 (1.37) USA National RDD violent trauma sample different from above
Campbell-Sills et al 2 764 6.62 (1.33) USA Community random digit dial in Memphis
Faria et al (2011) 2 421 6.50 (1.23) Portugal Community sample Lisbon
Ni et al (2015) 2 10,997 5.03 (1.37) China Hong Kong general population


Table 2a. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 25-Item Scores in Students and Young Adults

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Clauss-Ehlers and Wibrowski (2007) 25 95 73.1 (14.1) USA High school graduates
Steinhardt and Dolbier (2008) 25 27
30
70.6 (12.3)
67.7 (10.0)
USA College freshmen undergoing either treatment or control group
Otto et al (2010) 25 856 72.9 (13.5) USA College students
Johnson et al (2011) 25 45 Male
43 Female
77.8(10.3)
73.6(11.0)
USA College students in a study of alcohol use habits
Hartley (2011) 25 605 75.7(11.9) USA Undergraduate students
Brown and Tylka (2011) 25 290 76.0(13.2) USA African American students
Stephens (2012) 25 70 74.5
75.2
USA Nursing students control group
Nursing students pre treatment
Benetti and Kambouropoulos (2008) 25 240 64.3 (12.3) Australia Adult undergraduates
Bitsika et al (2010) 25 401 69.1 (13.4) Australia University students
Gucciardi et al (2011) 25 199 73.0 (10.9) Australia Teenage cricketers
Ziaian et al (2012) 25 170 62.2 (20.40) Australia Adolescent refugees
Pidgeon and Keye (2014) 25 141 90.7 (12.6) Australia University students
Jorgensen and Seedat (2006) 25 701 64.8 (18.9) South Africa School sample adolescents
Bruwer et al (2008) 25 502 65.9 (18.6) South Africa Convenience sample of high school students mean age 16.2
Fyncham et al (2009) 25 787 63.7 (17.9) South Africa Secondary school sample
Yu et al (2011) 25 2,914 69.6 (13.2) China Adolescent earthquake survivors
Peng et al (2012) 25 1,998 61.7 (10.6) China Medical students
Fu et al (2013) 25 2132
1988
50.5(19.9)
50.2(19.5)
China Adolescent and child survivors of earthquake
Chen et al (2014) 25 32 49.3(6.5)
52.7(17.9)
China Adolescent earthquake survivors who lost a parent: pre-treatment scores
Shi et al (2016) 25 2968 68.2(14.3)
70.4(14.4)
China College freshmen "left behind"
College freshmen controls
Khoshouei et al (2008) 25 323 68.3 (17.5) Iran Undergraduates
Ebrahimi et al (2012) 25 100 58.1(7.4) Iran University students
Allan et al (2014) 25 1534 75.1 (12.8) England University freshmen
Ito et al (2009) 25 220
434
55.8 (14.8)
64.3 (16.7)
Japan Undergraduates mean age 20
  Undergraduates mean age 39
Giesbrecht et al (2009) 25 79 66.4 (10.8) Netherlands Undergraduates
Markovitz et al (2014) 25 254 63.9 (14.1) Netherlands Dutch students
Vetter et al (2010) 25 94 70.1 (14.0) Russia Schoolchildren ages 10-16 who survived a terrorist attack in Ossetia, some of whom had PTSD
Cleverley and Kidd (2011) 25 47 60.9(18.9)
53.1(19.0)
Canada Homeless youth (male)
Homeless youth (female)
Lim et al (2011) 25   190 71.13   Singapore Adolescents mean age 12.8 (range 12-16)
Kang et al (2013) 25 321 67.2(12.7) Korea College students


Table 2b. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 10-Item Scores in Students and Young Adults

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Campbell-Sills et al (2007) 10 131 27.2 (5.8) USA College undergraduates
Hartley (2012) 10 605 30.1(5.3) USA Normative student sample
Shlomi (2010) 10 220 28.0 (5.7) Canada Psychology students
Rahimi et al (2014) 10 155 28.8 (4.4)
31.2 (5.2)
Canada Medical students – female < male scores
Lim et al (2011) 10 190 27.88 Singapore Adolescents mean age 12.8 (range 12-16)
Notario-Pacheco et al (2011) 10 681 27.4 (6.4) Spain University first year students mean age 20.1 (18-30)
Markovitz et al (2014) 10 254 25.7 (6.8) Netherlands Dutch students
Leventhal et al (2015) 10 1730
737
20.8
22.2
India Rural schoolgirl population mean age 12.9 years
Montero-Marin et al (2014) 10 314 27.8 (6.7) Spain Dental students
Farkas & Orosz (2015) 10 465 28.0(0.6) Hungary Students
DiFabio & Saklofske (2014) 10 164 24.8(6.2) Italy High school students
Aloba et al (2016) 10 449 26.7 Nigeria Student nurses


Table 2c. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 2-Item Scores in Students and Young Adults

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Lim et al (2011) 2 190 5.76 Singapore Adolescents mean age 12.8 (range 12-16)
Markovitz et al (2014) 2 254 5.61 (1.44) Netherlands Dutch students
Lu et al (2016) 2 218 6.46 (1.72) Taiwan Student athletes