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Table 8a. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 25-Item Scores in Other Groups, Those Under Stress and/or Mainly Healthy Subjects

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Wilks (2006) 25 205 73.4 (13.30 USA Alzheimer’s Caregivers
Laff et al (2008) 25 241 76.0 (11.0) USA Medical interns
Schaeffer et al (2009) 25 48
203
76.5 (12.8)
73.0 (11.9)
USA
USA
Missionaries
Missionaries
Green et al (2010) 25 497 71.2.(17.5) USA Veteran population
Sen et al (2010) 25 740 75.3 (11.9) USA Medical interns
Gabriel et al (2011) 25 57 66.5 (13.4) USA Nurses
Phillips (2011) 25 79 72.4(13.0) USA Unemployed men
Coates (2012) 25 110 80.5 USA Single low income Black fathers
Kjellstrand & Harper (2012) 25 128 76.0(14.8) USA Single mothers
Cox (2012) 25 144 76.8 (12.5) 71.7 (11.7) 73.6 (14.3) USA Military couples pre, during and post deployment
Calcote et al (2013) 25 176 76.3 USA Hazardous waste and emergency response workers
Knows-His-Gun et al (2013) 25 161 78.3 (15.4)
77.5 (10.3)
USA Native American
Caucasian
Rudow et al (2014) 25 151 83(11.6) USA Kidney and liver donors
Gonzalez et al (2016) 25 409 78.1 (10.9) USA Distance runners
Gillespie et al (2007) 25 735 75.9 (11.0) Australia Operating theatre surgical nurses
Gucciardi and Gordon (2008) 25 433 73.4 (11.0) Australia Adult cricketers
Gucciardi et al (2011) 25 321 73.2 (10.7) Australia Adult cricketers
Gucciardi et al (2011) 25 199 73.0 (10.9) Australia Teenage cricketers
Loh and Klug (2012) 25 108 75.0 Australia Women immigrants
Devilly & Varker (2015) 25 281 77.28 (10.4) Australia Victorian police officers
Hegney et al (2015) 25 1743 69.6 - 70.3 Australia Four groups of nurses, many with mild depression or anxiety
Baek et al (2010) 25 576 61.0 (13.0) Korea Students, nurses, firefighters
Lee et al (2014) 25 552 64.5 (17.0) Korea Firefighters
Lee and Williams (2013) 25 206 70.6(14.0) Koreans in the US Adults whose parents had alcoholism
Yu et al (2009) 25 76 65.4 (11.9) China Healthy parents
Carli et al (2010) 25 1,265 65.3 (14.1) Italy Prisoners
Hosseini and Besharat (2010) 25 139 73.8 (16.0) Iran Athletes
Stephenson (2012) 25 50 82.0 (11.2) US Virgin Islands Graduates of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Program
Hemmings et al (2013) 25 150 73(58,84) South Africa Non-TB contacts of family members with TB
Van Breda et al (2015) 25 55
32
77.3(1.7SE)
72.6(2.0)
South Africa Ironman athletes
Recreational athletes
Manzano-Garcia & Calvo (2013) 25 783 79.8(9.8) Spain Business owners and entrepreneurs
Yu et al (2009) 25 76 65.4(11.9) China Healthy parents
Yu et al (2013a) 25 1205 60.7(15.6) China Refugees
Yu et al (2014) 25 183 57.7 – 59.3 China Refugees to Hong Kong
Herbert et al (2013) 25 45 69.4(15.7) India Adult offspring of a parent with schizophrenia
Petros et al (2013) 25 196 67.0 (15.8) England Healthy adults in a university community
Tajanlangit (2014) 25 103 81.8 Philippines Mental health nurses
Lim et al (2015) 25 365 84.9(11.2) Singapore Older community sample Chinese women, average age 72
Sarubin et al (2015a) 25 201 73.9(12.0) Germany Healthy older women, non-clinical population


Table 8b. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 10-Item Scores in Other Groups, Those Under Stress and/or Mainly Healthy Subjects

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Li et al (2012) 10 113 22.6(7.6) China Parents under stress: children receiving surgery for congenital disease
Tian et al (2015) 10 575 26.5 (6.1) China Telephone operators
Paulus et al (2012) 10 10
11
30.6(12.3)
31.4(10.0)
USA Elite athletes
Healthy adult controls
Prabhakaran et al (2012) 10 63,290 31.9 USA Active duty air force personnel
Rosenberg et al (2013) 10 96 30.0(6.0) USA Parents of children with cancer
Warren et al (2013) 10 133 33.4(4.0) USA Surgeons
Turner (2015) 10 10 36.7 USA Nurses in hospital following tornado
Gonzalez et al (2016) 10 409 31.1 (5.0) USA Distance runners
Gayton and Lovell (2012) 10 146
73
30.1-31.2
27.4
Australia Experienced paramedics
Student paramedics


Table 8c. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 2-Item Scores in Other Groups and/or Mainly Healthy Subjects

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Eisenach et al (2014) 2 13 6.9 (1.0) USA New anesthesiology residents
Stevens et al (2010) 2 633 6.84 (3.82) Australia Ambulance officers


Table 9. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 10-Item Summary Scores

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Comments
Davidson (2003) 10 458 32.1 (5.8) USA National random digit dial sample
Campbell-Sills et al (2007) 10 131 27.2 (5.8) USA College undergraduates
Campbell-Sills et al (2008) 10 764 31.8 (5.4) USA Community random digit dial sample in Memphis
Wingo et al (2010) 10 792 34.0 (median) (0-40 range) USA Primary care/gynecology groups
Dodd (2010) 10 102 32.4(5.4) USA Inpatients in rehabilitation post injury
Grattan et al (2011) 10
10
10
10
71
23
47
47
29.1(6.1)
29.9(5.9)
30.0(6.5)
28.5(5.5)
USA
USA
USA
USA
Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
Wrenn et al (2011) 10 233
534
30 (12) median
35 (8) median
USA PTSD primary care patients
Non-PTSD primary care patients
Christensen (2011) 10 41 31.4(5.8) USA Inpatients with traumatic injury
Hartley (2012) 10 605 30.1(5.3) USA Normative student sample
Melvin et al (2012) 10 60 31.0 (6.5) USA Combat veteran couples
Goins et al (2012) 10 160 33.5 (6.2) USA Federally recognized Native American tribe
Hartley (2012) 10 121 19.6(8.2) USA Student counseling clinic sample
Mascolini (2012) 10 42
20
27.0
31.0
USA HIV positive older subjects
HIV negative older subjects
Paulus et al (2012) 10 10
11
30.6(12.3)
31.4(10.0)
USA Elite athletes
Healthy adult controls
Hammermeister et al (2012) 10 351 28.1 (0.88) USA Stryker Battalion combat troops
Prabhakaran et al (2012) 10 63,290 31.9 USA Active duty Air Force personnel
Rosenberg et al (2013) 10 96 30.0(6.0) USA Parents of children with cancer
Bradley et al (2013) 10 971 31.6(7.7) USA African-American OB-GYN outpatients
Warren et al (2013) 10 133 33.4(4.0) USA Surgeons
Dale et al (2014a) 10 138 28.8(7.8) USA HIV+ve women
Dale et al (2014b) 10 85 29.3(7.8) USA HIV +ve women
McCanlies et al (2014) 10 114 29.9 (6.3) USA Police officers post Hurricane Katrina
Rainey et al (2014) 10 110 31.3 (not given) USA Hospitalized subjects with traumatic injury
Green et al (2014) 10 1090 30.5 (6.6) USA Community sample of military veterans
Lukow et al (2015) 10 96 22.0 (8.8) USA Mild to severe TBI
Rosenberg et al (2015) 10 1782 31.4 (6.6) USA Hematopoietic cell transplantation patients
Turner (2015) 10 10 36.7 USA Nurses responding to tornado casualties
Gonzalez et al (2016) 10 409 31.1 (5.0) USA Distance runners
Shlomi (2010) 10 220 28.0 (5.7) Canada Psychology students
McGlone (2010) 10 27 29.3 (6.2) Canada Epilepsy
Rahimi et al (2014) 10 155 28.8 (4.4) Female
31.2 (5.2) Male
Canada Medical students
Wang et al (2010) 10 341   24.8(7.4)
20.8(6.3)
26.8(6.3)
China Earthquake survivors – whole group
PTSD group
Non-PTSD controls
Wang et al (2010) 10 341 26.8 (6.3) China Schoolteachers affected by earthquake
Li et al (2012) 10 113 22.6(7.6) China Parents under stress: children receiving surgery for congenital disease
Duan et al (2015) 10 95 25.5 (4.9) China University students with PTSD and PT growth
Tian et al (2015) 10 575 26.5 (6.1) China Telephone operators
Wu et al (2015) 10 318 24.8 (7.5) China Earthquake survivors – corrected values given here
Kilic et al (2013) 10 60 29.5(7.2) Australia Spinal cord injury
Gayton and Lovell (2012) 10 146
73
30.1-31.2
27.4
Australia Experienced paramedics
Student paramedics
Black & Dorstyn (2013) 10 196 27.0(7.1) Australia Multiple sclerosis
Hayter & Dorstyn (2013) 10 97 25.6(8.0) Australia Spina bifida
Lyons et al (2016) 10 357 27.0 (7.7) Australia HIV+ve gay men
Davidson et al (2008) 10 329 20.1
19.9
International
International
PTSD before drug treatment
PTSD before receiving placebo
Klasen et al (2010) 10 330 22.7 (8.3) Uganda Former child soldiers aged 11-17
Aloba et al (2016) 10 449 26.7 Nigeria Student nurses
Lopes and Martins (2011) 10 463 29.1 (5.5) Brazil Adult sample
Lim et al (2011) 10 190 27.88 Singapore Adolescents mean age 12.8 (range 12-16)
Notario-Pacheco et al (2011) 10 681 27.4 (6.4) Spain University first year students mean age 20.1 (18-30)
Montero-Marin et al (2014) 10 314 27.8 (6.7) Spain Dental students
Notario-Pacheco et al (2014) 10 191 24.7(10.8) Spain Fibromyalgia patients
Rodriguez-Rey et al (2015) 10 620 28.4 (6.8) Spain Mixed sample of medical patients, parents of children with medical/psych problems and general population
Scali et al (2012) 10 238 27 (22-32 1,3Q) France Mammography subjects with and without breast cancer
Glück et al (2013) 10 84 25.9 (6.7) PTSD
31.1 (6.1) Control
Austria World War II survivors
Markovitz et al (2014) 10   254
101
107
25.7 (6.8)
27.6 (5.9)
27.4 (6.8)
Netherlands
Belgium
Belgium
Students
Breast cancer patients
Control women
DiFabio & Saklofske (2014) 10 164 24.8(6.2) Italy High school students
Okuyama et al (2014) 10 1973 20.5(0.2 SE) Japan Adolescent survivors of Great East Japan Earthquake
Antunez et al (2015) 10 1922 29.0 (0.1) Spain Adults in the community
Farkas & Orosz (2015) 10 465 28.0 (0.6) Hungary Students
Schäfer et al (2015) 10 191 31.3 (4.8) Germany Male soldiers